Sabtu, 16 Februari 2013

PTK Bahasa Inggris



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.   The background of study
In English language, there are four skills to be mastered. They are listening, speaking, reading, writing. Writing is one of the four language skills which is very important to learnt. As it know, writing is not easy. Among the skills, writing is the most difficult skill to be learnt, because it needs hard thinking in producing words,sentences, and paragraph at the same time.
As Jack C. Richard and Willy  A. Renandya (1986:1) said, “writing is the most difficult skill for second language learners to mastered. The difficulty lies not only in generating and organizing ideas, but also in translating these ideas into readable text.”
In the second years of junior high school, the basic competency that should be achieved in the writing English subject is that the students have ability to develop and produce written simple functional text in the descriptive text, recount text, and narrative text.
Descriptive text is one of the essay texts which is difficult enough to be learnt by the students. Descriptive text is a text that describes the feature of someone, something, or a certain place. Descriptive text consists of introduction and description. Introduction is the part of paragraph that introduces the character, and description is the part of paragraph that describes the character. The students can use simple present and adjective clause in writing descriptive text. In writing the descriptive text, students often find some difficulties. The students usually feel difficult to organize their ideas. Furthermore, many students made some mistake  and faces difficulties to build and develop their imagination.
Base on the statement above, teachers must be able to organize learning – teaching activities. They have to master the material, method also and also technique or strategy to make the students understand and apply descriptive writing matters in practice. A good technique can help the students in comprehending and mastering the lesson. One of the teaching failure is caused by an unsuitable method or technique in teaching – learning process, the writer would like to propose an alternative technique, that is the one which common known under the term “Clustering Technique”. Clustering Technique is a good way to turn a broad subject into a limited and more manageable topic for a short essay. According to John Langan (2001:25), clustering technique also known as diagramming or mapping, is another strategy that can be used to generate material for a paper. This method is helpful for people who like think in a visual way. In clustering, you use lines, boxes, and circle to show relationship among the ideas and details that occur to you.”
Moreover, the clustering technique can motivate the students to write and to stimulus their ideas. Besides that, this technique will help the students to organize their thinking before they develop in a paragraph.
Basd on the  writer’s experience when he did the observation on SMPN 19 Makassar, the process of teaching – learning in the classroom was still passive. The students did not understand clearly about descriptive text, how to identify the descriptive text, and how to describe persons, places, and things in English writing. Besides that, the teacher used one technique in teaching descriptive text  which makes the students felt bored and difficult to understand the material when teaching – learning. Therefore, the teacher needed to be more creative in teaching, including the use of technique.
In teaching learning process of decriptive text the teacher was still active so that the students didn’t have chance to express their idea to make descriptive text. Besides that the teacher seldom gave students the vocabulary and explained the phrase which focus on descriptive text so that the students were difficult to organize their vocabulary to be a good paragraph.
The teacher’s strategy in teaching descriptive text was not detail so that students felt difficult to understand descriptive text more detail and there was not the key words which must be understood by students, because the teacher only focused on evaluation of the descriptive text than made students understand about descriptive text.
Base on the background above, the writer took a title of this “skripsi” “Improving Students’ Ability in Writing Descriptive Text Using Clustering Technique at Eighth grade of SMPN 19 Makassar”.
              
B.   The Statement of Problem
Base on the background presented above, the writer planned to use clustering technique in teaching writing of descriptive text at the eighth grade of students of SMPN 19 Makassar. The general question of this research was “how can the use of clustering technique improve students’ ability in writing descriptive text?”

C.   The Scope  of Study
 The writer only focused on eighth grade of students SMPN 19 Makassar at the first semester 2012/2013 academic year, and the problem of this study was be limited in the implementation of using clustering technique in teaching descriptive text.

D.   The Object of Study
From the previous discussion in the background of the study, the objectives of this study was as follows :
1.    To improve the students’ ability in writing descriptive text  using clustering technique.
2.    To add students’ insight in writing descriptive text using clustering technique.

E.   The significant of Study
The result of this study can provide useful information for :
1.    To the teachers
The result of this study was useful for English teachers at Junior High School level to get information about teaching descriptive writing using clustering technique.
2.    To the students
The result of this study gave an input to the students to improve their ability in writing.

3.    To the readers
The result of this study can add insight or reference about descriptive text teaching.
4.    To the other researchers
For further researchers who was interested in teaching descriptive writing at junior high school level can get the basic information from this study to do the further research.















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter contains previous related finding, the definition of writing, the defition of descriptive text, the definition of clustering tecchnique, theoretical framework and hypothesis.
A.    The Previous Related Research Finding
Fikri Fauji Alawi  (2011) conclude that clustering technique can improve studens’ abiliity in writing descriptive text and make students motivated and interested to participate and actively in writing activety.

B.    Writing
1.   The definition of writing
In learning English, there are four skills that should be mastered; those are listening, speaking, reading, writing. Among the four skills, writing is the most difficult skill to be learnt. This opinion is supported by Jack C. Richards and Willy A. Renandya (2002 : 303) Writing is the most difficult skill for second language learners to be mastered”. The difficulty is not only in generating and organizing ideas, but also in translating idea into readable text.
There are many different definition about writing  given by experts from many resources. According to Rise B. Axelrod and Charles R. Coopers (1985:3)  said, “ writing is a complex process and as such contains element of mystery and surprise. But we know and believe that writing is a skill that anyone can learn to manage”
on the other side, Barnet and Stubb’s (1983:3) said that writing as a physical act, it request material and energy. And like most physical acts to be performed fully, to bring pleasure, to both performer and audience, it requires practice”.
From definition above, it can be said that writing can be distinguished from other skills as the most difficult one. There are many factors influencing writing to be a good one such as grammatical, vocabulary, punctuation, and spelling knowledge which must be integrated to be a paragraph.
From the ideas previously, the writer conclude that writing is a medium of written communication. It is a way of remembering and a way of thinking. Because of that, writing is not easy. It needs a hard work. In writing we have to produce words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs at the same time. It is a way of learning. None of us can write much of interested things without first thinking, probing/investigating, experimenting, and reading.


2.   The writing process
Writing is a process that involves several steps. At least. There are three steps in the writing process mentioned by Karen Blanchard, and Christine Root (2003:41) in their book; Ready to write: A first Composition text.
Step one : Prewriting
Thinking about your topic and organizing your ideas.
Step two : Writing
Using your ideas to write a first draft
Step three : Revising
Improving what you have written
If the writers follow the steps, and practice by writing often, they will find it easier to write paragraphs and to improve their writing.
a.   Prewriting
Prewriting is the thinking, talking, reading, and in writing we think about our topic before we write a first draft. Prewriting is a way of warming up our brain before we write, just s we warm up our body before we exercise.
There are several ways to warm up before start writing :
1)   Brainstorming
Brainstorming is a quick way to generate a lot of ideas on a subject. The purpose is to make a list of as many ideas as possible without worrying about how you will use them.
To brainstorm, follow these steps:
a)    Begin with a broad topic.
b)   Write down as many ideas about the topic as you can be in five minutes.
c)    Add more items to your list by answering the questions who, what, when, where, why, and how.
d)   Group similar items on the list together.
e)    Cross out items that do not belong.
2)   Clustering
Clustering is another prewriting technique. It is a visual way of showing how your ideas are connected by using circles and lines. When you cluster, you draw a diagram of your ideas.
This term was explained in the next section. On the other hand said that pre-writing is any activity in the for getting started. In fact, it moves students away from having to face blank page toward generating tentative ideas and gathering information for writing. The following activities provide the learning experiences for students at this stages
a)    Group Brainstorming
b)   Clustering
c)    Rapid Free Writing
d)   WH-question
                        
b.   Writing
After we have sent some time thinking about our topic and doing the necessary prewriting, we are ready  for the next step in the writing process: writing our paragraph. When we write the first draft of our paragraph, use the ideas we generated from prewriting as a guide.
As you write, remember to :
1)   Begin with a topic sentence that states the main idea.
2)   Include several sentences that support the main idea.
3)   Stick to the topic.
4)   Arrange the sentences so that the order of ideas make sense.
5)   Use signal words to help the reader understand how the ideas in your paragraph are connected.


c.    Revising
It is almost impossible to write a perfect paragraph on the first try. The first try is called the first draft. After you complete the first draft, you must look for ways to improve it. This step is called revising.
When students revise, they review their text on the basic of the feedback given in the previous stage. They reexamine what was written to see how effectively they have communicated their meaning to the reader.
In another source stated that writing is a process that involves the following steps:
1)   Discovering a point-often through prewriting.
2)   Developing solid support for the point – often through more prewriting.
3)   Organizing the supporting material and writing it out in a first draft.
4)   Revising and then editing carefully to ensure an effective, error – free paper.

3.   Purpose of Writing
According to penny Ur (1996:163) the purpose of writing, in principle, is the expression of ideas, the conveying of messages to the reader. So the ideas themselves should arguably be seen as the most important aspect in the writing”.
It means that when the writers do their writing, of course they have some purpose. They have to consider the purpose of their writing since this will influence, not only the type of text they wish to produce, but also including the language which they use, and the information that they choose.
In addition, there are really only four common purpose in writing they are: to inform, to explain, to persuade, and to amuse others.
a.   Writing to Inform
In much of the writing that the writers will do, they will intend simply to inform their readers about a subject. To inform is to transmit necessary information about the subject to the readers, and usually this means just telling the readers what the facts are or what happened.
Although informative writing is the simplest kind as writing, it is also one of the most important, because information lays a foundation for other writing purpose. As the writer to inform, they will want to keep two large concern in mind; selecting the right information and arranging it effectively.

b.   Writing to Explain
Writing to explain means writing to take what is unclear and make it clear. In explanatory writing, a writer who understands a complex topic must take sure that his readers understand it as well.
All of us use several common methods of explaining something to another person in our everyday conversation, and these same techniques can provide basic strategies for organizing an explanation in writing.

c.    Writing to Persuade
The most important writing we ever do in our personal life, our work life, and may be our school life  will probably persuasion. Complaints to the rant board about our landlord, letters of application for jobs, essay on examinations is to convince your readers to accept the main idea, event though it may be controversial.

d.   Writing to Amuse Other
Writing to amuse requires that you focus on readers than yourself. You may enjoy the experience and take pride in what you accomplish, but you cannot settle for amusing yourself alone. Writing to amuse gives you an opportunity to bring pleasure to others. do the opportunity and make it the most of it.
If you find pleasure in writing to amuse, it will come from knowing that you succeed in bringing pleasure to others. When write to amuse, your primary object is to make readers enjoy themselves. You can be funny, but you should also be good humored. This means having sympathy for human frailty rather than a contempt for anyone or anything that seems different from what you are accustomed to.

C.   DESCRIPTIVE TEXT
1.   The definition of descriptive text
Descriptive text is a part of factual genres. Its social function is to describe a particular person, place or thing. In writing skill description is the process of creating visual images through words. Description is a part of another piece of writing and is used to inform an audience about how something or someone looked or to persuade an audience to see something from the writes’ point of view.
Description recreates sense impression by translating into words, the feel, sound, taste, smell, and look of things. Emotion may be described too, feelings such as happiness, fear, loneliness, gloom, and joy. Description helps the reader, through his or her imagination, to visualize a scene or a person, or to understand a sensation or an emotion.

2.   Purpose of descriptive text
As social beings, we want to share our experience, so we write to others to describe things such as vacations, childhood home, and people whom we meet. We even use description to persuade us to think or act in particular ways: advertisers describe products to persuade us to buy them; travel agents describe locales to entice us to visit them; and real a state agents describe properties to stimulate a desire to see them.

3.   Kinds of Descriptive Text
As we know that descriptive text is a text to describe something, such as people, places, or things. So, it normally takes on three forms, they are:
a.   Description of people
People are different, and in describing of people is different.  You are probably aware of some of the complications because you have often been asked,” What’s so and like?” in replying, you might resort to identification or a character sketch, depending on the situation. Let’s examine each.
1.   Identification
Although you might provide identification, you would probably want to go further than that. Used mainly in official records and documents, identification consists only of certain statistic information (height, weight, age), visible characteristics (color of hair, skin, and eyes), and recognizable marks (scars, birthmark).

2.   Impression
Unlike the identification, the impression may not identify a person, but it does convey all of the ideas of him or her. The writer does provide in a few broad stokes a general feeling about the subject. Although impression is usually less compete and informative than identification, it may be more effective in capturing an individual’s certain attitude.




3.   Character Sketch
More complete description of people are usually called character sketch; they may also be referred, literary portraits, and biographical sketches. As its name indicated, the character of a person, or at least his or her main personality attitude. In the process, it may include identification and an impression, but it will do more that tell what people look or seem like: it will show what they are like.
A character sketch may be about a type rather than an individual, revealing the characteristics common to the members of a group, such campus jocks, cheerleaders, art students, religious fanatics, television devotes.

b.   Description of a place
In describing a place for example a room, what should you describe first? The wall? The floor? Unlike a chronologically developed paragraph, there is no set pattern for arranging sentence in descriptive paragraph. It is not necessary to begin with one are and then proceed to another one. Nevertheless, the sentence should not be randomly arranged.
The description must be organized so that the reader can vividly image the scene being described. To make the paragraph more interesting, you can add a controlling idea that state an attitude or impression about the place being described. And the arrangement of the details in your description  depend on your subject and purpose.

c.    Description of a thing
To describe a thing the writer must have a good imagination about a thing that will be described. Beside, to make our subjects as interesting and as vivid to our reader as they are to us; using proper nouns and effective verbs.
1.  Using proper noun
In addition to filling our descriptive writing with concrete details and figures of speech, we might also want to include a number of proper nouns, which, as we know, are the names of particular persons, places, and things.
For example; Arizona, university of Tennessee.  Including proper nouns that readers recognize easily and can make what we are describing more familiar for them.


2.  Using Effective Verb
We know how important verbs are to narration, but effective verbs can also add much to a piece of description. Writers use verbs to make descriptions more specific, accurate, and interesting. For instance, “the wind had chiseled deep groves into the sides of the cliffs” is more specific than “the wind had made deep grooves.” The verb chiseled  also given the reader a more accurate picture of the wind’s action than made does.

4.   The structure and example of descriptive text
The generic structure of a description are as follows:
1.    Identification               : identifies the phenomenon to be described
2.    Description of features  : describes features in order of importance;
a.    Parts/things (physical appearance)
b.    Qualities (degree of beauty, excellence, or worth/value)
c.    Other characteristics (prominent aspect that are unique).

The generic features of description are:
                                1.    Verb in the present tense
                                2.    Adjective to describe the feature of the subject
                                3.    Topic sentences to begin paragraphs and organize the various aspects  of the description.
The factual description scaffold
1.    A general opening statement in the first paragraph
a.    This statement introduces the subject of the description to the audience.
b.    It can give the audience brief details about the when, where, who, or  what of the subject.
2.     A series of paragraph about the subject
a.    Each paragraph usually begins with a topic sentence.
b.    The topic sentence previews the details that will be contained in the reminder of the paragraph.
c.    Each paragraph should describe one feature of the subject.
d.    These paragraphs build the description of the subject.
3.    A concluding paragraph (optional)
a.    The concluding paragraph signals the end of the text.
b.     
Example of descriptive text
Mr. Kartolo, the farmer
Mr. Kartolo is very happy. The rainy season of this year makes the farm beautiful. It is planting time! Rice fields become fresh green during this season and by the end of this season Mr. Kartolo is ready to harvest his corps.
               Mr. Kartolo ploughs the land at the beginning of the rainy season. Then, he usually works early and finishes at noon. Milking the cows, feeding the livestock, and cleaning the barns are among. Mr.Kartolo’s duties before breakfast. He does most of the hard outdoor work by himself.

D.   CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE
1.  The definition of clustering
In the writing process there is a prewriting step. One of the prewriting steps is clustering. There are a lot of definition about clustering stated by experts, Karen Blanchard and christine root (2003:42)   define that clustering is another prewriting technique. It is a visual way of showing how your ideas are been connected using circles and lines. When you cluster, you draw a diagram of your ideas.
              Santi V. Buscemi (2002:14) said that clustering is a good way to turn a broad subject into a limited and more manageable topic for a short essay. Also called mapping, and diagramming, it is an other effective way to gather information for an essay. To cluster ideas, begin with a blank sheet of paper. In the center, write and circle the word that expresses the broad subject which one to write about. Think of ideas and details related to this subject. This technique will help the students to organize their ideas before they develop in paragraph of descriptive writing.
              According to John Langan (2006:25) Clustering also known as diagramming or mapping, is another strategy that can be used to generate material for a paper. This technique is helpful for people who like to think in a visual way. In clustering, writes can use lines, boxes, arrows, and circle to show relationship among the ideas and details that occur to them. It means that clustering is a technique that can help students to narrow the subject especially for visual learners.
              On the other hand, Thomas E. Tyner said that,
Lopping (clustering) is a technique for developing rough outline for a topic by beginning with the most general ideas and moving to more and more specific details. It is beneficial in seeing the relationship between details, in organizing information in an orderly fashion, and in developing specific support for their main ideas.

From the definition above, the writer concludes that clustering is making a visual map or new association that allows thinking more creatively and to begin without clear ideas. Clustering can be useful for any kind of writing. Writers use it in the early stage of planning an essay in order to find sub topic in a topic to organize information. Writers can use clustering to plan brief section of an essay as are drafting.

2.  The definition of technique
Talking about technique there are three terms that must be differentiated because these terms used in teaching learning activity and people often confuse with these terms, they are approach, method, and technique.
From the statement above, Edward Anthony in 1963 identified three levels of conceptualization and organization, which he termed approach, method, and technique. The arrangement is hierarchical. The organizational key is that technique carry out a method which is consistent with an approach. An approach is a set of correlative assumption dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning. An approach is axiomatic. It describes the nature of the subject matter to be taught. While method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts, and which is based upon, the selected approach. An approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural. Within an approach, there can be many methods.
From the idea previously, it can be concluded that a technique is implementation which actually takes place is a classroom. It is a particular tricks, stratagem, or contrivance used to accomplish an immediate objective. Technique mush be consistent with a method, and therefore in harmony with an approach as well.
Based on the statement above, it can be said that technique is a way of doing an activities derived from an application of principles.
So, clustering is one of the techniques in teaching writing because it is a teacher’ strategy which implemented in the classroom.

3.  The application of clustering technique in writing descriptive text
From the concept stated previously, it can be know that clustering is a strategy that can be used to generate material for a paper. This technique is helpful for the writer who like to do their thinking in a visual way. In clustering, the writer can use lines, boxes, arrows, and circles to show relationship among the ideas.
To begin, take a sheet of paper and write a general subject in the center. Then circle the world. Keep in mind that there is no right or wrong way  of clustering or diagramming. It is a way to think on paper about how various ideas and details relate to one another.
In clustering you write a topic in the center of a piece of paper, then write ideas suggested by the topic around it, connecting these to the topic with lines, follow the same procedure with your sub topic.
          Furthermore, the application of clustering in teaching begins with a key word or central idea in the center of a page (or on the whiteboard) jots down in a few minutes all of the free associations triggered by the subject matter-using simply words or short phrases. Unlike listing, the words or phrases generated are put on the page  or board in a pattern which takes shape from the connection the writer sees as each new thought emerges. Complete cluster can look like spokes on the wheel or any other pattern of connected lines, depending on how the individual associations are drawn to relate each other. By having students share their cluster patterns with other students in the class, teachers allow students to be exposed to a wide variety of approaches to the subject matter, which might further generate material for writing.

Figure 2.1
The Application of clustering technique
SULE
Funny
Artist
Appearance







Comedian
Blond hair
Flat Nose
         

My Favorite Artist
              I have a favorite artist. His name is Sule. His true name is Entis Sutisna. Sule has long blond hair. He looks so funny with a flat nose. He is very popular in one television program “OVJ” as a funny comedian. Beside, he also has a good voice. I like him very much.
E.  Theoretical Framework
Theoretical framework of my research is stated as follows:
CURRICULUM / COMPETENCY
SKILLS
 


    
SPEAKING
READING
WRITING
LISTENING
CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE
 




    
ANALYSIS
FINDING
STUDENT’S
ABILITY
 






F.    Hypothesis
Using the clustering technique can improve students’ ability in writing descriptive text of the second year students of SMPN 19 Makassar  .

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

A.   The Setting of the Study
This study was be conducted at SMPN 19 Makassar. The school is located at Jl. Tamangapa Raya III Makassar (South Sulawesi).
This school was be chosen as the field of the study because the writer had observed the real condition of this school in teaching learning process especially in teaching learning activity in writing descriptive text.

B.   Subject of Study
The writer selected the eighth years of SMPN 19 Makassar and class which was be selected was class B which consist of 44 students.

C.   Research Instrument
Some instrument was be applied to obtain the data in this study. The writer was use interview, questioner and field note to obtain the qualitative data. On the other side, the writer used the students’ final writing to obtain the quantitative data.
1.    Interview was be applied for English teacher before the classroom action research and after classroom action research. It was be applied before classroom action research and to know the students’ difficulties in writing skill, the students’ participation in writing class. And the teaching strategy in teaching writing. Meanwhile, it was be conducted after classroom action research to know the teacher’s respond about the learning strategy which was focus on Clustering Technique.
2.    Field notes was be used to record detailed information about the implementation of the study . in addition it was be used to know the good point from the students and the teachers side and things to consider for the next meeting. The writer and observer recorded a description of classroom atmosphere, the setting of the class, and the students’ activities during the teaching and learning of writing using Clustering Technique.
3.    Test was be given to the students focused on writing descriptive paragraph. The result of this test is students’ descriptive paragraph. The aim of this test is to measure the students’ ability in writing descriptive text. The test was used in this study is students’ final writing.


D.   The  Design of Study
The design of this study was classroom action research. It was called CAR because the study focused on a particular problem and a particular group of students in a certain classroom. According to Suharsimi Arikunto (2009:58) classroom action research is an action research which is carried out at the classroom that aim to improve learning practical quality. Millis defines an action research as any systematic inquiry conducted by teachers or researchers, principals, and school counselors in the teaching and learning environment to gather information about (a) how their particular school operates, (b) how teachers teach, and (c) how well their students learn.
Based on the definition above the implementation of classroom action research is enable to give improvement of the quality of teaching and learning of school in education since it can diagnose and solve the problem in teaching learning activity.
Furthermore, CAR is a sequence research activity, that has purpose to improve social quality, that was done by collecting data or information systematically through four steps: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting.
Therefore, there are elements in CAR:
1.    Research was an activity to improve an object by using an appropriate methodology rules for getting data and information and then analyze to solve problem.
2.    Acting was an activity that was done for certain purpose, in cycle sequence form activity.
3.    Class was group of students when at the same time, receive same lesson from their teacher.
The writer used classroom action research model proposed by DR. H. E. Mulyasa, M.Pd.(2009:79) which consists of four steps, namely, planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. Improvement of the problem in this study was brought about by a series of cycles. The figure can be seen below.
CYCLE I                                            CYCLE II
PLANNING

ACTING

OBSERVING

REFLECTING

PLANNING
ACTING
REFLECTING
OBSERVING
?
 








Figure 3.1
Model of Action Research.

E.   The Procedure of the Study
In this Classroom Action Research (CAR), the writer used the CAR principles to collect the data. This research writer tried using two cycles and each cycle consists of four elements. If the first cycle successed, so the writer continued to the second cycle to get good score or to solve the students’ problems in learning writing especially made descriptive text.

1.   Planning Phase
In this phase, the writer and the teacher made some planning based on the finding of preliminary findings. The following activities in this action planning was designing lesson plan, preparing the model of clustering technique, preparing materials and media, and determining criteria of success.
Designing lesson plan aimed to provide the teacher with the guideline of teaching and learning activities. The lesson plan was included the following items: specific instructional objectives, the instructional material and media, procedure of presentation, and procedure of assessment.
Next step was preparing the model of clustering technique; using of clustering technique in improving students’ ability in writing of descriptive text. A model of clustering technique developed by the writer and collaborator in teaching descriptive writing was using shapes, lines and boxes. It was an activity conducted by the students to generate and organize their ideas on the shapes based cluster.
The following step was preparing materials and media. The materials for implementing the action related to schematic structure and language features in writing descriptive text.
The last step was determining the criteria of success. It was useful for measuring whether the action of this study was successful or not. In line with the study, the criteria of success was decided based on the agreement between the writer and the collaborator as follows:
a.    The students’ writing score improve at the same as the Minimum Mastery Criterion- Kritera Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) of English is 68 and it is considered successful if 85% (35 out of 44) of the students with individual score in writing descriptive text achieve at least the same as or above 68.
b.    The students’ participation in writing activities increase 85% (35 0ut of 42) of the students should get involved in writing activities and their involvements are in scales “Good” and “Very Good”.

2.   Acting Phase
In this phase, the write carried out the action based on the lesson plan that had been made. In implementing the action, the writer acted as the English teacher who taught descriptive writing using clustering technique. Meanwhile the collaborator acted as the observer who observed all of the activities that happened in the teaching learning process.

3.   Observing Phase
This phase discusses about the process of recording and gathering all of relevant data about any aspect occurred during the implementation of the action. The important aspects in observing are source of data, the instrument used in collecting the data, and the technique for data collection. In doing the observation phrase, the writer himself involved in teaching learning activities and the observer observed all the activities that happened in the class.



4.   Reflecting phase
After collecting the data, the writer analyzed the data of teaching-learning process. Then, the writer reflected himself  seeing the result of the observation, whether the teaching- learning process of writing descriptive text using clustering technique runned suitable with lesson plan at  eight grade students of SMPN 19 Makassar or not. If the first plan was unsuccessful, proven by students’ achievement, the writer should make the next plan (re-planning) to solve students’ problem and also to get a good result.

F.    The Technique of Collecting Data
There are two techniques of data collecting was be applied in this study, they was observation, interview and test in order to support the data of teaching and learning process. On the other side, the writer used the students’ final writing to obtain the quantitative data.
1.    The writer did the observation directly toward English Teaching and learning process at eighth grade students of SMPN 19 Makassar students 2012/2013 year.
2.    Interview will be applied for the English teacher before the classroom action research and after classroom action research. It is applied before action research to know the students difficulties in writing skill, the students’ participation in writing class, and the teaching strategy in teaching writing. Meanwhile, it was conducted after classroom action research to know the teacher’s response about the learning strategy focused on the implementation of using clustering technique in teaching descriptive writing.
3.  Test was be given to the students focused on writing descriptive text. The result of this test was students’ descriptive text. The aim of this test was to measure the students’ ability in writing descriptive text.

G.   The Technique of Data Analysis
In analyzing the data relates to the students’ test of writing ability, the writer used analytical scoring rubric adapted from Weigle (2002:116). There are five components presented in the analytical scoring rubric for writing. They are content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanic. In this study, the writer combined vocabulary and mechanic component. The following table was the analytical scoring rubric used by the writer to analyze the students’ paragraph writing.

Table 3.1
Analytical scoring rubric of Descriptive Writing
Components of writing
Scores
Indicators
Content
4
3
2
1
Relevant to the topic and easy to understand
Rather relevant to the topic and easy to understand
Relevant to the topic but is not easy to understand
Quite relevant to the topic but is not quite easy to understand
organization
4
3
2
1
Most of the sentences relate to the main idea
Some sentences relate to the main idea
Few sentences relate to the main idea
The sentences un relate to each other
Vocabulary
&
Mechanic
4

3

2

1

a few errors in choice of words, spelling and punctuation
some errors in choice of words, spelling and punctuation
occasional errors in choice of words, spelling and punctuation
frequent errors in choice of words, spelling and punctuation
Grammar
4
3
2
1
a few grammatical inaccuracies
some grammatical inaccuracies
numerous grammatical inaccuracies
frequent grammatical inaccuracies

_    ΣX
  X = ──
      N
To get the mean of students’ writing score within one cycle use the formula:


Where :
X  : Mean
X  : individual score
N  : Number of students
           F
P = ── X 100%
          N
                    In gaining the class percentage which passes the minimum mastery criteria – Kriteria Ketentuan Minimal (KKM) 68 used the formula.


     Where :
P : The class percentage
F : Total Percentage score
N : Number of students
      y - y1
P = ─── X 100%
          y
                    Next step, the writer identified the improvement score on students’ descriptive text from cycle 1 to cycle 2 the writer used this formula.

     Where :
P  : percentage of students’ improvement
Y  :  first cycle Result
Y1        :  second cycle Result






BIBLIOGRAPHY

                                                                                             
Adelstein, Michael E and Jean G. Pival. 1976. The Writing Commitment. New York : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Inc.

Anderseon, Mark and Kathy Anderson. 1998. Text type in English 2. Australia : MachMillan.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2009. Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta : Bumi Aksara.

Axelord, Rise B and Charles R Chooper.1985. The St Martin’s Guide to Writing. New York : St Martin’s Press. Inc.

Barnet, Sylvan and Marcia Stubbs.1983. Practical Guide to Writing  Canada : Little. Brown & Company (Canada) Limited.

Blanchard, Karen and Christine root. 2003. Ready to Write : A First Composition Text (3rd edition). New York : Pearson education. Inc.
 .2006. Ready to Write: A First Composition Text (3rd edition). New York : Pearson Education. Inc.

Brown, Daniel and Bill Burnette. 1984. Connection A Rhetoric/Short Prose Reader. New Jersey : Hounghton Mifflin Company.

E.Tyner, Tomas. 1985. Writing Vogaye. California : wadswoth, inc.

Clouse, Barbara Fine. 2004. The Student Writer : Editor and Critic (6th edition), New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004.

Dietsch, Betty Mattrix. 2003. Reasoning and Writing Well : A Rhetoric, Reseach Guide, Reader , and Hand Book. New York : McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.

Kunandar. 2008. Langkah Mudah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (Sebagai Pengembangan Profesi Guru). Jakarta : Rajagrafindo Persada.

Langan, John. 2006 English Skills with Readings. New York : McGraw-Hill.

Miller, Robert keith. 2006. Motives for Writing (5thedition). New York : McGraw Hill Companies.


Mills, Geoffrey E. 2003. Action Research : A Guide for the Teacher Researcher. (2ndedetion). New Jersey : Merril Prentice Hall.
                                                                                        
Mulyasa, H. E. 2009. Praktik Penelitian Tindak Kelas. Bandung : PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Murcia, Celce Marriane. 1991. Teaching English as a Second Language or Foreign Language. Boston : hainle &  Heinhle.

Pharr, Donald and Santi Buscemi. 2005. Writing Today : Context and Options for the Real World. New York : McGraw-hill Companies. inc.

Richards, Jack C and Theodore S. Rodgers. 1986. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching : A Description and Analysis. New York : Cambridge University Press.
__________.2002. Methodology in Language Teaching (An Anthology of Current Practice). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

Ur, Panny. 1996. A course in Language Teaching : Practice and Theory. London : Cambridge University Press.

Wardiman, Artono, et. al. 2008. English in Focus : For Grade VII Junior High School (SMP/MTs). Jakarta : Pusat Perbukuan. DEPDIKNAS.

Weigle, Sara Cushing. Assesing Writing. 2002. Cambridge : University Press.

Wishon, George E and Julia M. Burks. 1980. Let’s Write English. New York : Educational Publishing.

Woodson, Linda. 1982. From Cases to Composition. Illinios : Scon, Foresman and Company.

Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar